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Strain 33A1-SZDPT was isolated from a small creek located in Puch, Austria. Strain SP-Ram-0.45-NSY-1T was obtained from a small pond located in Schönramer Moor, Germany. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between the type strain of Silvanigrella aquatica, currently the only member of the family Silvanigrellaceae, and strains 33A1-SZDPT and SP-Ram-0.45-NSY-1T of 94.1 and 99.1 %, respectively, suggested affiliation of the two strains with this family. Phylogenetic reconstructions with 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenomic analyses with amino acid sequences obtained from 103 single-copy genes suggested that the strains represent a new genus and a new species in the case of strain 33A1-SZDPT (=JCM 32978T=DSM 107810T), and a new species within the genus Silvanigrella in the case of strain SP-Ram-0.45-NSY-1T (=JCM 32975T=DSM 107809T). Cells of strain 33A1-SZDPT were motile, pleomorphic, purple-pigmented on agar plates, putatively due to violacein, and showed variable pigmentation in liquid media. They grew chemoorganotrophically and aerobically and tolerated salt concentrations up to 1.2 % NaCl (v/w). The genome size of strain 33A1-SZDPT was 3.4 Mbp and the G+C content was 32.2 mol%. For this new genus and new species, we propose the name Fluviispira multicolorata gen. nov., sp. nov. Cells of strain SP-Ram-0.45-NSY-1T were motile, pleomorphic, red-pigmented and grew chemoorganotrophically and aerobically. They tolerated salt concentrations up to 1.1 % NaCl (v/w). The genome size of strain SP-Ram-0.45-NSY-1T was 3.9 Mbp and the G+C content 29.3 mol%. For the new species within the genus Silvanigrella we propose the name Silvanigrella paludirubra sp. nov.

"This project will combine the best elements of epigenetic research, bioinformatics, and CRISPR to create a tool that solves a real problem in the field of oncology," Bob Brown, chair of translational oncology in Imperial College's department of surgery and cancer, said in a statement. "The approach of epigenetic editing using CRISPR can potentially target precise epigenetic changes in a personalized manner to specific genes to make tumor cells more sensitive to chemotherapy drugs. Such targeting will avoid some of the non-specific side effects in cancer and normal cells caused by current epigenetic therapies."

Unlike in the world of pure software, you can’t “compile” and “run” genetic code instantaneously (if you want to use the metaphor that cells are like miniature biological computers operating off of DNA). There is lag time as researchers have to splice together different DNA parts and then insert them into host cells in a lab, where they can test them to see if they properly produce certain enzymes.

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